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Midterm
INTRO MIDTERM: Choose three of the following questions and write ½ page – 1 page on each. Answers should be typed, double spaced, with 12 pt. font.

1. In Hesiod’s Theogony, the gods can represent many different things. Describe some of the things that the gods can represent, and give at least three examples from the text to support your claim.

2. In Hesiod’s Theogony, it becomes difficult to determine when the gods are to be understood literally and when they are to be understood metaphorically. Describe some of the potential difficulties that can
occur when taking a purely literal interpretation of Theogony, and give at least three examples from the text to support your claim.

3. In Hesiod’s Theogony, the tension that arises within the family context can often have tragic implications. Discuss some of the implications of this tension, and be sure to give at least two examples
from the text to support your claim.

4. Discuss how understanding the unity of nature was an object of intellectual desire for the Ionian Naturalists, and describe and contrast Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximens in the context of this unity.

5. Compare Heraclitus, Parmenides, and Pythagoras. Be sure to include how each saw reality in the context of unity, change, existence, perception, and eternity.

6. Define monism, pluralism, materialism, and animism. Be sure to give an example of each from the text.

7. Describe and compare the notion of Brahman and Ahura Mazda. Be sure to include a discussion of monotheism, Spenta Mainyush, Angra Mainyush, and Asha.

8. Describe and compare Confucianism and Daoism. Be sure to include how each saw the human being’s relationship to society, education, and what each understood as the Dao.

9. Describe the story of how Gautama Siddhartha came to be known as the Buddha, and the general principles of Buddhism that resulted. Be sure to include a description of Nirvana, desire, suffering, and
the four Noble Truths.

10. Give a description of Socrates and his impact on the society in which he lived. Be sure to include how Socrates interacted with people, what he understood to be the basis of his wisdom, why was he put on
trial, what was the nature of the sentencing, and why he chose the fate that he did. Students should draw from the examples of Socrates depicted in Aristophanes and Plato.

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