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Question 1: Although the term “bureaucracy” is neutral, it is endowed by deeply negative connotations. Why is this the case? Is bureaucracy doomed to this status because carrying out power is a necessary evil or are there other avoidable aspects to bureaucracy’s bad rap? The text cites a prime minister from the former Soviet Union saying “Creating the appearance of work, taking cover behind hollow rhetoric, bureaucracy may hold back the improvement of the economic mechanism, dampen independence and initiative and erect barriers to innovation.” What do you think?
Question 2: How have the systems theory and the structural approach been attacked? Are these criticisms valid? Are any of the criticisms so problematic that the approaches should be disregarded? Have these critics missed any weaknesses in the two approaches? If so, what are they?
Question 3: Some of the alternatives to systems theory and the structural approach are the humanist, pluralist, and formal approaches. How does the humanist approach humanize organizations? What are some of the criticisms of the humanist approach?