The Popular Sport Of Basketball Physical Education Essay

Basketball is one of the most popular team sports extensively played and viewed all over the world. Through time, basketball has developed to involve common techniques of shooting, passing, dribbling, including players positioning as well as offensive and defensive structures. While competitive basketballs have developed is carefully regulated, numerous variations of basketball have developed for casual play. A basketball player needs the ability to rapidly switch between forward, backward lateral and vertical movement. In view of the above the basketball player need needs good fitness, flexibility power, strength, agility, endurance and vertical jump ability to achieve sports targets.

Flexibility is defined as the absolute range of movement in a joint or series of joints that is attainable in a momentary effort with the help of a partner or a piece of equipment. By increasing this joint range of motion, performance may be enhanced and the risk of injury reduced. It is often overlooked as a factor in leaping ability of a player; jumping high is based on the elasticity of muscle and tendons. Flexibility can be attained by proper stretching techniques. It is a process to elongate the muscle.

A vertical jump or vertical leap is the act of raising one’s center of gravity higher in the vertical plane. It is the person’s ability to reach higher. A vertical jump of 40 inches or more is considered outstanding. Vertical jump is extremely important for many sports activities. Jump height and repeatable jump is needed in games like, Basket ball, Volley ball ect. To achieve a good jump person needs his muscle in a highly flexible level.

Agility is the ability to change the body’s position efficiently, and requires the integration of isolated movement skills using a combination of balance, coordination, speed, reflexes, strength, endurance and stamina. Agility can be achieved through coordinated work of muscular system and nervous systems. To achieve a good performance in a game person needs good skill on agility.

Plyometrics is a type of exercise training designed to produce fast, powerful movements, and improve the functions of the nervous system, generally for the purpose of improving performance in sports. Marked evidence indicates that regular participation in Plyometric training program can improve measures of strength and power in adults (Chu, 1998; Fleck and Kraemer, 2004) Plyometric movements, in which a muscle is loaded and then contracted in rapid sequence, use the strength, elasticity and innervations of muscle and surrounding tissues to jump higher, run faster, throw farther, or hit harder, depending on the desired training goal. It is used to increase the speed or force of muscular contractions, providing explosiveness for a variety of sport-specific activities. The exercises use explosive movements to develop muscular power. Plyometric training acts on the nerves, muscles, and tendons to increase an athlete’s power output without necessarily increasing their maximum strength capacity. This combination of eccentric-concentric contractions is known as the stretch shortening cycle. The addition of an eccentric contraction prior to a concentric contraction has been found to increase the force, speed, and power output of the concentric contraction. Most of the researches have suggested that Plyometric exercises were initially utilized to enhanced sports performance, and are more recently being used in the rehabilitation of injured athletes to help in preparation for a return of sports participation.

Dynamic stretching follows the principle of a joint´s increasing range of motion during dynamic movements. In this type of stretching, limb is forced in different positions, but allows the body to gradually become more flexible while doing the exercise. Dynamic stretching consists of functional based exercises which use sport specific movements to prepare the body for movement. Dynamic stretching involves moving parts of the body and gradually increasing reach, speed of movement, or both.(Kurz et al., 1995). Dynamic stretches, there are no bounces or “jerky” movements. Dynamic stretching is most often used just before extensive sports-related workouts or competitions.

Various studies have been done to see the effect of dynamic stretching and Plyometrics on vertical jump and agility in different sports and age groups. Most of research literature prove it to be effective and accepted on these variables. This study is to be conducted to find out the combined effect of dynamic stretching and plyometric training program on vertical jump and agility in male collegiate basketball players.

1.1 NEED FOR THE STUDY:

Most of the sports activities need a rapid activity of muscles. Activity of the muscles depends on the nature of game. Basket ball is a type of game which needs more of lower limb activities, since the game need person to be more agile and has involved in a lot of jumping activities. To achieve or to give a better performance basket ball player needs to improve skills. There is various numbers of training methods available. Each method has different advantages. Though different training methods available all techniques are not giving the same result. Plyometric is one of the common methods used in current scenario. Various researches shows the efficacy of the Plyometric training but only few studies compared with other techniques. So this study aims to compare the Plyometric training with the dynamic stretching.

1.2 AIM OF THE STUDY:

An Experimental Study to find out the Effect of Plyometric Training and Dynamic Stretching on Vertical and Agility in Male Collegiate Basketball Players

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

To find out the effect of plyometric training on vertical jump performance and agility drills in male collegiate basketball players.

To find out the effect of dynamic stretching on vertical jump performance and agility drills in male collegiate basketball players.

To find out the effect of plyometric training and dynamic stretching on vertical jump performance and agility drills in male collegiate basketball players.

1.4 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:

An Experimental Study to find out the Effect of Plyometric Training and Dynamic Stretching on Vertical and Agility in Male Collegiate Basketball Players

1.5 HYPOTHESIS:

There is a significant improvement in vertical jump performance and agility drills in the basketball players under,

Dynamic stretching

Plyometric stretching

Combined Dynamic stretching & Plyometric stretching

There is no significant difference in the improvement between the experimental interventions on the vertical jump performance and agility drills in the basketball players .

1.6 KEYWORDS / OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS:

PLYOMETRIC TRAINING:

Plyometrics is defined as exercises that enable a muscle to reach maximum strength in as short a time as possible. It is a type of exercise training designed to produce fast, powerful movements, and improve the functions of the nervous system, generally for the purpose of improving performance in a specific sport.

DYNAMIC STRETCHING:

Dynamic stretching, according to Kurz, “involves moving parts of your body and gradually increasing reach, speed of movement, or both.” Dynamic stretching follows the principle of a joint´s increasing range of motion during dynamic movements. Here you don´t force limbs into any position, but allow the body to gradually become more flexible while doing the exercise.

VERTICAL JUMP:

Vertical jump is the ability to raise one’s center of gravity higher in the vertical plane solely with the use of one’s own muscles. It is a measure of high an individual or athlete can elevate off the ground from a stand still.

AGILITY:

Agility is the ability to change the body’s position efficiently, and requires the integration of isolated movement skills using a combination of balance, coordination, speed, reflexes, strength, endurance and stamina.

BASKETBALL PLAYERS:

Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of 5 players try to score points against one another by placing a ball through a 10 foot (3.048 m) high hoop (the goal) under organized rules. Basketball is of the most popular and widely viewed sports in the world.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Moran KA ,et al., (2010)

The study results indicate that dynamic stretching should be used as part of a general warm-up in golf.

Chaouachi A, et al., (2010)

Study was to suggested that the effects of static and dynamic stretching alone and in combination on subsequent agility, sprinting, and jump performance of professional or national level elite athletes who trained 6-8 times a week with each session lasting approximately 90 minute & based on these findings in trained individuals had the enhance improvement in activities.

Chaouachi A, et al., (2010)

Study was to suggested that the effects of static and dynamic stretching alone and in combination on subsequent agility, sprinting, and jump performance of professional or national level elite athletes who trained 6-8 times a week with each session lasting approximately 90 minute & based on these findings in trained individuals had the enhance improvement in activities.

U. Sekir, et al., (2009)

Study findings suggest that dynamic stretching, as opposed to static or no stretching, may be an effective technique for enhancing muscle performance during the pre-competition warm-up routine in elite women athletes.

Jaggers JR, et al., (2009)

Study shows that neither dynamic stretching nor ballistic stretching will result in an increase in vertical jump height or force. However, dynamic stretching elicited gains in jump power post stretch.

Hough PA, et al., (2009)

The study found that of Dynamic Stretching and exclusion of Static Stretching in preparation for activities requiring jumping performance.

O. Sullivan K, et al., (2009)

Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Dynamic stretching also increased hamstring flexibility The effect of warm-up and Dynamic stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced flexibility post-injury.

Nicole .J. Chimera (2008)

Plyometric exercises should be incorporated into the training regimens of female athletes and may reduce the risk of injury by enhancing functional joint stability in the lower extremity.

Impellizzeri F.W (2008)

Plyometric training on different surfaces may be associated with different training induced effect on some neuromuscular factors related to the efficiency of the stretch-shortening cycle.

Vladan Milić1, et al., (2008)

Studies shows that the effects of six-week plyometric training program during the second half of the preliminary period of the annual training cycle in explosive strength of cadet volleyball players.

Christensen BK, et al., (2008)

The results of this study showed that 3 different stretching warm-ups have a significant effect on vertical jumping. The results also showed there were no gender differences between the 3 different warm-ups.

Coons, John M., (2008)

The different findings between dominant and non-dominant legs indicate leg dominance could be a factor when comparing static and dynamic stretching for increasing flexibility. Also, the results indicate that dynamic stretching produces greater changes in vertical jump height than static stretching.

Herman SL, et al., (2008)

The findings suggest that incorporation of this specific 4-week Dynamic stretching Warm Up intervention into the daily pre season training regimen of wrestlers produced longer-term or sustained power, strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity and agility performance enhancements.

Bailey, et al., (2008)

The results of this study indicate that pre-event dynamic exercise might be more beneficial than both pre-event static stretching and combination warm up protocols for preparing for performance in youth rugby union players and youth sports of a similar nature.

Michael G. Miller , Jeremy Christopher C (2006)

The plyometric training group reduced time on the ground on the post test compared to the control group. The results of this study show that plyometric training can be an effective training technique to improve an athlete’s agility.

McMillian DJ, et al., (2006)

Dynamic stretching the results of this study indicate a relative performance enhancement with the dynamic stretching warm up, the utility of warm up routines that use static stretching as a stand-alone activity should be reassessed.

Martel, et al., (2005)

The volleyball training resulted in larger improvements in Vertical Jump than in the Controlled group. Thus, given the likely reduction in muscle soreness with APT versus land-based plyometrics, APT appears to be a promising training option.

Ashley, et al., (2005)

Results found both plyometric and agility training induced positive changes in the hamstrings/quadriceps ratio. However, plyometric training is superior to sprint and agility training, across the skills related components.

Toumi H.et al 2004

Results showed that when plyometric training is performed with rapid stretch contraction the counter movement jump height increases.

Brown Mayhew, et al., (2004)

Significant improvement in vertical jump height following a 12-week DJ training pro-gram in male basketball players when compared to controls.

Rajić, et al., (2004)

Carried out a study in order to determine the influence of a plyometric training model for the development of explosive strength on the change in the maximal indicators of the muscle mechanical characteristics of isometric force among the muscle groups which endure the greatest load during a volleyball game.

Barnes, et al., (2004)

Agility training is thought to be a re-inforcement of motor programming through neuromuscular conditioning and neural adaptation of muscle spindles, golgi-tendon organs, and joint proprioceptors by enhancing balance and control of body positions during movement, agility theoretically should improve.

Anderst, Bebi et al., (2003)

Researchers have shown that plyometric training, when used with a periodized strength-training program, can contribute to improvements in vertical jump performance, acceleration, leg strength, muscular power, increased joint awareness, and over all proprioception .

V. Milic, et al., (2002)

Statistically significant difference was noted between the experimental and control group on the basis of which we concluded that the plyometric model can be recommended for the training of cadet volleyball players.

Asmussen, E, et al., (2001 )

The effects of jump training on vertical jump ability have also been studied. They have found that jump height can be improved through plyometric jumps.

III. METHODOLOGY

3.1 STUDY DESIGN:

Randomized control trails with 3 interventions are to be followed to assess the effectiveness of plyometric training and dynamic stretching on the vertical jump and agility drills in basketball players.

3.2 STUDY DURATION:

Six weeks

3.3 STUDY SETTING:

Therapeutic gymnasium, K.G. Fitness center, Coimbatore.

3.4 ORIENTATION OF SUBJECTS:

Before the study was conducted all the participants read and signed a consent form, which informed them of the study procedure, their rights, contradiction of the study conducted. They were asked to inform if they feel any discomfort during the study.

Each player was asked to complete a questionnaire outlining any history of injury and activity level prior to participating in preseason intervention.

3.5 SELECTION OF SAMPLE:

Only those 45 basketball players between the age group of 18-22 and their BMI falls within the normal limit (22-25) are selected and divided into 3 groups of 15 each.

Random sampling method as given below:

Groups

Numbers

Interventions

Group-I

15

Dynamic stretching

Group-II

15

Plyometric training

Group-III

15

Dynamic stretching and Plyometric training

3.6 CRITERIA FOR SELECTION:

INCLUSIVE CRITERIA

Age group of 18-22

BMI falls within the normal limit (22-25)

Subjects with good flexibility

Full range of motion (Hip, Knee, Ankle)

Muscle power – 5

EXCLUSIVE CRITERIA

Subject with musculoskeletal problems

Subject with Neurological impairment

Pathological condition of spine, hip, knee, pelvis

Subject has a history of Trauma

Subject with cardiovascular conditions

Over and under weight (BMI)

Unwilling subjects

3.7 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:

45 Basketball Players (Randomization)

Group-IV

(Ex-III)

Group-III

(Ex-II)

Group-II

(Ex-I)

Dynamic stretching and Plyometric training

Post intervention evaluation of outcome parameters

Dynamic stretching

Plyometric training

Pre intervention evaluation of outcome parameters

3.8 VARIABLES:

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

Plyometric training

Dynamic stretching

DEPENDENT VARIABLE

Agility

Vertical jump

3.9 OUT COME PARAMETER:

Agility:

Performance in agility score: T-test Agility.

Vertical jump:

Height performance in centimeters: Sergeant Jump test.

3.10 MEASUREMENT TOOLS:

Chalk

Timer

Cones for agility

Inches tap

3.11 STATISTICAL TOOLS:

One way ANOVA

Student ‘t’ test

3.12 PROCEDURE:

Standard warm up protocol:

All the samples are subjected to a standard warm up protocol for 11 min. All the subjects underwent 11 minutes of warm up protocol including

5 minutes of static stretching

6 minutes of jogging

Performed prior to training.

All 45 subjects for this study were divided into 3 groups of each 15 using random sampling method.

Baseline measurement before application of experimental treatment:

All the subjects in 3 groups (N=45) had underwent a baseline assessment of the physical performance measured by means of following 2 parameters,

Vertical jump measurement:

Jump test:

The subjects stand side on to a wall and reach up with the hand closest to the wall. Keeping the feet flat on the ground, the point of the fingertips is marked. The subjects then stand away from the wall, and jumps vertically as high as possible using both arms and legs to assist in projecting the body upwards. Attempt to touch the wall at the highest point of the jump. The difference between the reach height and jump height is the score. The best of three attempts is recorded.

T-Test Agility:

The four cones were set as the ‘T’ shape. The subject starts at cone A. On the command of the timer, the subject sprints to cone B and touches the base of the cone with their right hand. Then turn left and shuffle sideways to cone C, and also touches its base, this time with their left hand. Then shuffle sideways to the right to cone D and touching its base with the right hand, then shuffle back to cone B touching with the left hand, and run backward to cone A. The stopwatch is stopped as they pass cone A.

Experimental training interventions:

Group-I (Exp-I)

All the subjects on this group-I were given dynamic stretching for 6 weeks. Subjects were performed dynamic stretching for the following muscle groups, hamstrings, quardriceps, glutei, hip flexors, and calf.

Group-II (Exp-II)

All the subjects on this group-II were given plyometric training for 6 weeks. The subjects performed different types of plyometric training for initiated with low intensity and wind up with high intensity.

Group-III (Exp-III)

All the subjects on this group-III were given dynamic stretching and plyometric training for 6 weeks.

Cool down:

All the subjects were underwent 7-8 min of jogging as cool down session.

Time and duration:

All training programs were carried out for 2 days per week for six weeks. Post stretch measurements after 6th weeks post intervention measurements for the vertical jump height and T-test agility score were taken the same manner as pre intervention measurements.

All the measurements were taken by the same examiner.

IV.DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

TABLE: 1

Summary of one way ANOVA result for Vertical jump:

Source of variation

Sum of squares

d.f

Mean squares

F – ratio

Between groups

1129

2

564.3

69.08

Within groups

343.1

42

8.168

Total

1472

44

ANOVA result for vertical jump measurement showed significant difference between groups and hence the probability of result rejects the null hypothesis.

TABLE: 2

Summary of one way ANOVA result for Agility:

Source of variation

Sum of squares

d.f

Mean squares

F – ratio

Between groups

80.27

2

40.13

63.62

Within groups

26.49

42

0.6308

Total

106.8

44

ANOVA result for agility measurement showed significant difference between groups and hence the probability of result rejects the null hypothesis.

TABLE: 3

Paired’t’ test

Vertical jump group-I

S.NO

VERTICAL JUMP

GROUP -I

MEAN

Standard deviation

Paired ‘t’ test

1

Pre test

37.4

0.784

5.44

2

Post test

38.5

Using student paired ‘t ‘test with 14 degree of freedom and 5% as level of significance the table value is 5.44 and the calculated ‘t’ value is 1.761.

The test shows that there is a significant difference between the pre test and post test vertical jump scores

GRAPH:1

S.NO

VERTICAL JUMP

GROUP -II

MEAN

Standard deviation

Paired ‘t’ test

1

Pre test

37.2

2.05

14.2

2

Post test

44.7

TABLE: 4

Paired ‘t’ test

Vertical jump group

Using student paired’t’ test with 14 degree of freedom and 5% as level of significance the table value is 14.2 and the calculated ‘t’ value is 1.761.

The test shows that there is a significant difference between the pre test and post test vertical jump scores

GRAPH: 2

TABLE: 5

Paired ‘t’ test

Vertical jump group III

S.NO

VERTICAL JUMP

GROUP -III

MEAN

Standard deviation

Paired ‘t’ test

1

Pre test

40.0

4.34

9.60

2

Post test

50.8

Using student paired’t’ test with 14 degree of freedom and 5% as level of significance the table value is 9.60 and the calculated ‘t’ value is1.761.

The test shows that there is a significant difference between the pre test and post test vertical jump scores.

GRAPH: 3

TABLE: 6

Paired ‘t’ test

Agility group I

S.NO

Agility group I

MEAN

Standard deviation

Paired ‘t’ test

1

Pre test

13.4

0.599

7.14

2

Post test

12.3

Using student paired’t’ test with 14 degree of freedom and 5% as level of significance the table value is 7.14 and the calculated ‘t’ value is1.761.

The test shows that there is a significant difference between the pre test and post test agility scores.

GRAPH: 4

TABLE: 7

Paired’t’ test

Agility group II

S.NO

Agility group II

MEAN

Standard deviation

Paired ‘t’ test

1

Pre test

13.2

1.31

9.29

2

Post test

10.1

Using student paired’t’ test with 14 degree of freedom and 5% as level of significance the table value is 9.29 and the calculated ‘t’ value is1.761.

The test shows that there is a significant difference between the pre test and post test agility scores.

GRAPH: 5

TABLE: 8

Paired’t’ test

Agility group III

S.NO

Agility group III

MEAN

Standard deviation

Paired ‘t’ test

1

Pre test

13.6

1.70

10.0

2

Post test

9.16

Using student paired’t’ test with 14 degree of freedom and 5% as level of significance the table value is 10.0 and the calculated ‘t’ value is 1.761.

The test shows that there is a significant difference between the pre test and post test agility scores.

GRAPH:6

TABLE: 9

Unpaired’t’ test

Vertical jump group I & II

Groups

MEAN

Standard deviation

unpaired ‘t’ test

Group I

38.5

2.83

5.99

Group II

44.7

The calculated probability value by comparing the vertical jump score of group I & II was 5.99 at 0.05 level which was greater than the tabulated’t’ value of 1.701.

The test shows that there is a significant difference between the vertical jump scores of group I & II.

GRAPH: 7

TABLE: 10

Unpaired’t’ test

Vertical jump group II & III

Groups

MEAN

Standard deviation

unpaired ‘t’ test

Group II

44.7

2.85

5.83

Group III

50.8

The calculated probability value by comparing the vertical jump score of group I & II was 5.83 at 0.05 level which was greater than the tabulated’t’ value of 1.701.

The test shows that there is a significant difference between the vertical jump scores of group II& III.

GRAPH:8

TABLE: 11

Unpaired’t’ test

Vertical jump group III & I

Groups

MEAN

Standard deviation

unpaired ‘t’ test

Group III

50.8

2.89

11.6

Group I

38.5

The calculated probability value by comparing the vertical jump score of group I & II was 11.6 at 0.05 level which was greater than the tabulated’t’ value of 1.701.

The test shows that there is a significant difference between the vertical jump scores of group III& I.

GRAPH: 9

TABLE: 12

Unpaired’t’ test

Agility group I & II

Groups

MEAN

Standard deviation

unpaired ‘t’ test

Group I

12.3

0.860

7.22

Group II

10.1

The calculated probability value by comparing the vertical jump score of group I & II was 7.22 at 0.05 level which was greater than the tabulated’t’ value of 1.701.

The test shows that there is a significant difference between the agility scores of group I & II.

GRAPH: 10

TABLE: 13

Unpaired’t’ test

Agility group II & III

Groups

MEAN

Standard deviation

unpaired ‘t’ test

Group II

10.1

0.742

3.36

Group III

9.16

The calculated probability value by comparing the vertical jump score of group I & II was 3.36 at 0.05 level which was greater than the tabulated’t’ value of 1.701.

The test shows that there is a significant difference between the agility scores of group II & III.

GRAPH: 11

TABLE: 14

Unpaired’t’ test

Agility group III & I

Groups

MEAN

Standard deviation

unpaired ‘t’ test

Group III

9.16

0.776

11.2

Group I

12.3

The calculated probability value by comparing the vertical jump score of group I & II was 11.2 at 0.05 level which was greater than the tabulated’t’ value of 1.701.

The test shows that there is a significant difference between the agility scores of group III & I.

GRAPH: 12

V. DISCUSSION

The purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness of plyometrics and dynamic stretching on jump performance and agility in collegiate basketball players.

45 players were selected for the study and they all divided into 3 equal groups. 15 subjects in each group. Group-I is under dynamic stretching, Group-II under plyometric training and Group-III under plyometrics training and dynamic stretching.

Basketball is a highly skilled game in which more jumping activities required. Explosive power to the muscle is required to achieve maximal jumping. Basket ball is the game need to be more agile and bound up, it requires lot of training. Though there are varieties of training used up in improvement of performance combination of training is not extensively done.

Vertical jump is the technique which involves jumping vertically against gravity with the use of muscles. Jumping height depends on how muscle contract and relaxes. Vertical jump is very important in many sports activities. Improvement of jump performance depends on various factors. Numerous techniques are available in the improvement of jump performance.

Plyometric training helps in enhancement of vertical jump performance due to excitability of fast twitch motor units (Faigenbaun et al 2006).

Improvements occur as a result of dynamic stretching is due to relaxation of muscle stiffness. (MC Nair P et al 2004). Stretching may decrease stiffness by breaking the bonds between actin and myosin filaments or by increasing muscle temperature. (Bishop D 2003).

Combination of the both Plyometric training & Dynamic stretching helps in improvement in enhancement of neuromuscular function. The occurrence of post activation potential is believed to increase the rate of force development, thereby increasing speed and power production.(Sale d et al., 2002 )

On comparing the effectiveness of vertical jump performance the plyometric group improves more than dynamic group. It is postulated that vertical performance improved by stretch shortening cycle jumps. It also e

 

Live Chat+1(978) 822-0999Email