The Game Of Volleyball Physical Education Essay
Volleyball is a team sport that has earned his place in every competitive level, based on very quick and explosive movements, such as jumping, hitting, diving and blocking (Mario. C Marques, Roland Van Den Tillaar, Tim J. Gabbett, Victor M. Reis, and Juan J. Gonzalez-Badillo, 2009). The squad consists of 12 players with team positioning depending on the attributes the player has, the positions are broadly defined as setters, hitters, opposite and outside hitters (left and right), middle blockers and liberos, each of the positions have a specific role within a match (Mario C. Marques et al. 2009). The left and right outside hitters positioning is at the net, and the priority for these players is to spike the ball and block opponent attacks. The percentages of attack and block jumps performed according to the position played in the court were 33 and 67 % for Position 2(right side outside hitter), 29 and 71 % for Position 3 (middle blocker), and 59 and 41 for position 3 (left side outside hitter). The left outside hitter focuses more in spike jumps than blocking because the right outside hitter is the one that helps more the middle blocker, focusing mostly in block jumps (Black, 1995). Every spike is made approximately at 100MPH, the player with the greater strength blocking or spiking will be the one that wins the joust (Scates et al.,2003). The athletes in volleyball generate a great deal of force when landing after performing an approach jump, blocking a spike, during a spike and while diving (Gadeken, 1999).
Data gathered within the past competition seasons tells us that the athletes that are involved in volleyball sport do short run distances, vertical jumps and change directions frequently in a matter of seconds during the games. The trainings made by coaches should be based on this data to increase the attributes needed for a maximal performance but keeping a minimum reduction in performance due to fatigue (Black, 1995). According to Gadeken (1999) players must have a solid strength, plyometric and conditioning foundation in order to be able to absorb the forces generated while performing jumps and sudden movements. Certain abilities must be developed during training activities such as the high jumps, hand-eye coordination, fast response to change positions rapidly maintaining body balance, short distance running amongst others.
Volleyball is a high speed sport in which anaerobic training is needed to gain energy; the source is the phosphagen system which provides ATP (adenosine triphosphate) (Scates, et al. 2003). Athletes according to Scates, et al. (2003) do not only have to be in good physical condition to play volleyball, an athlete has to be in volleyball condition in order to be able to perform as expected, this involves the capability of the athlete to perform high jumps at the same height during a match, and must have the energy to maintain the physical feats while sustaining their levels of strength, power and agility. Timothy J. Piper tells us that in womenâ€™s intercollegiate volleyball the most important factor for success is the upper-body strength and for spiking velocity the main factor is the shoulder extension strength at high speeds.
The major muscle groups utilized while hitting, blocking, passing, setting and moving at a volleyball game or training drill were studied to determine the movement patterns. Balance and coordination are required in order to comply with the demands of body movement while the athletes are on their feet (Gadken, 1999). In order to produce a greater force while jumping the glutes, hamstrings, quadriceps, and calves work together to produce the power necessary to impulse the body up (Scates, et al. 2003).
According to Marques et al. (2009) there are differences in anthropometric, muscular strength and power characteristics of volleyball athletes according to the position they are playing. The outside hitters have a significant difference in maximal bench press strength, parallel squat and throwing distances than the setters and liberos, demonstrating to have greater lower-body strength. Outside hitter skills and drills are different from a setter or libero, while the setter focuses in well set passes, an outside hitter will focuse on block jumps, backpedaling for 4 m, rapid spike approaches and spike jumps, every exercise done within a short period of time (Allen Hendrick, 2007).
Volleyball training is in need of anaerobic conditioning due to the short and explosive movments and high power outputs, games may last a long period of time but the game plays are not continuous with many breaks during the game (Scates, et al., 2003). Specificity and overload are necessary to increase the body efforts and improvement, according to Black (1995) the overload training must be stimulus; this means that the weights, speed, height and duration must be greater than usual in order to have a direct impact in body resistance, strength and conditioning. Increasing the speed, power and overall coordination is important and it can be achieved by doing Olympic-style lifts and Power cleans to develop the hip and back power (Timothy J. Piper, 1997).
The volume of strength training varies depending on the exercise. Olympic style lifts never exceed 6 repetitions in some programs due to the fact that performing more than 6 repetitions may place the athlete at risk for injury (Gadeken, 1999). The use of free weights and of upper and lower body ballistic training is important in developing strength and power (Gadeken, 1999). Like basketball players, volleyball athletes need to be able to leap with agility and power but also be able to hit the ball with an enormous force while suspended in mid-air (Scates et al., 2003). Importance made on movements in which the athletes are on their feet, the exercise is similar to the demands of volleyball, and balance and coordination are required (Gadeken, 1999).
It is necessary for the volleyball player to have a great upper-body strength, stability of the shoulder socket, and functional trunk strength to allow the athlete to swing faster and more powerfully (Scates et al., 2003). The shoulder joint musculature and rotator cuff muscles are of major concern because of their roll in stabilization of the shoulder and because of the high forces produced while spiking and blocking (Gadeken, 1999).