The Benefits Of Core Training Physical Education Essay

Core is where our center of gravity is located and where all movement begins. There are 29 muscles that attach to the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. An efficient core allows for maintenance of the normal length-tension relationship of functional agonists and agonists, which promotes normal force-couple relationships in the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. Maintaining the normal length-tension relationships and force-couple relationship allows optimal arthrokinematics in the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during functional kinetic chain movements (Prentice 4th edition “Rehabilitation Techniques for Sports Medicine and Athletic Training, 2004).

According to Stone et. al. (2006) on their journal “Weightlifting: a brief overview”, weight lifting is a strength-power sport, where the athletes characteristics were similar to athletes from wrestling and hammer throw sport, in kind of their physical attributes (somatotype). Their height and weight ratio was typically lower than for most athletes. Although performance is partially related to body mass, stronger weightlifters will lift more in the snatch and clean and jerk. In the competition, weight lifted is partially related to body mass and strongly related to peak power where smaller weightlifters have a higher maximum strength and body mass ratio compared with bigger weightlifters. Weightlifters are considered as the strongest and powerful among all sports thus, their metabolic rate is considered high. The weightlifting training is different as it follows periodization program that cannot be generalized to other sport. But, the risk of injuries during training and competition are not as high as other sport.

Flexibility is the ability of the neuromuscular system to allow for efficient movement of a joint or series of joints through a full, nonrestricted, pain free range of motion. Most sport activities require relatively normal amounts of flexibility. However, some activities, such as gymnastics, ballet, diving, and karate, require increased in flexibility for superior performance. Proper strength training will probably improves dynamic flexibility and, if combined with rigorous stretching program, can greatly enhance powerful and coordinated movements that are essential for success in many athletic activities (Prentice 4th edition “Rehabilitation Techniques for Sports Medicine and Athletic Training, 2004).

The core is commonly referred to as the “powerhouse” or the foundation of all limb movement, because the core muscle is the center of the body and all limb movement or physical activity will need a support of the core. The core also absorbs the tension of any movement of the body, so it is important to have a strong core muscles. Many methods claims to be successful in achieving in strengthening the core muscle and some individuals willing to spend whatever are needed to get a six pack. So the controversy exists to determining the most effective’s method to strengthen the core muscles (Lori AvedIisian 2005).

The core muscles are the superficial and deep spinal extensors muscles, abdominal muscles, pelvic floor muscles, and shoulder girdle and hip girdle muscles. The term core strength refers to the strength of these core muscles. Core muscle strength is usually operationally defined by a measurement of the strength of core muscles, either in terms of how much weight/resistance a muscle can lift, how many repetitions a muscle can perform, or how long a muscle can hold a neutral stable position. Specific spinal stabilization exercises have been shown to reduce future recurrences following an acute lower back pain (LBP). Specific spine stabilization exercises or core exercise can achieved superior outcomes to isotonic exercises in chronic patients study by Craig Liebenson (2007).

The benefits of core strengthening exercise or core stabilization are improving athletic performance, preventing injuries, alleviating low back pain, maintaining proper torso stability, postural control, and improving appearance. Besides that, according to Pierce (2007), they state that the core training is important to prepare the need athletes that involve in activities such as running, climbing, swimming and so on. So to improve performance, they usually train and condition only the muscles used the most for the activities for example arms and legs, but not the core muscles. It may seem that every movement starts from the limbs, but actually the strength needed to perform any activities come from the core or the center of the body. When they have strong core muscles and function together with other muscle, any activities will be perform easily and take less effort.

According to Roetert et. al. (2001) on their study, “Retention of Flexibility”, being flexible provides many benefits in training as well as in daily life activities. it helps in sports movement and allow for stresses accommodating. Furthermore, opposing muscle work can be lightened through less restricted motion. Blood supplies also become more efficient. Balancing becomes more effective with enhancement of flexibility. Besides sport setting, daily routine can be done in no stress, such as brisk walking, mopping, sweeping and many more. In addition, flexibility can be maintained for a long term simply by doing sit and reach whereby it can be apply at home.

1.1 Problem statement

Weightlifters that outperform were lack of core strength and flexibility as there was no maintaining in training program basely on core muscles and flexibility. As they grew older and achieve higher level in sport, the focus on maintaining core strength and flexibility is lowered. Therefore, they need to maintain their core strength so that they can directly maintain their weightlifting performance.

1.2 Purpose of study

The main purpose of the study is to investigate the core strength and flexibility among National weightlifters. This study is also trying to prove if weightlifters have good both core strength and flexibility.

1.3 Hypotheses

H0: There will be no significant correlation between age group and core strength and flexibility.

H1: There will be a significant correlation between age group and core strength and flexibility.

H0: There will be no significant correlation between BMI group and core strength and flexibility.

H2: There will be a significant correlation between BMI group and core strength and flexibility.

H0: There will be no significant correlation between core strength and flexibility.

H3: There will be a significant correlation between core strength and flexibility.

1.4 Objectives of the study

In this study, the objectives to be achieved are:

To determine core strength in weightlifters.

To determine flexibility in weightlifters.

To determine whether weightlifters have core strength and flexibility at the same time.

1.5 Significance of the study

Finding of this study can disseminate the importance of core strength and flexibility especially for the weightlifters. It also may suggest possible ways to enhance the athletes sport performance via various flexibility and core strength program. The coaches can gain knowledge about the core strength and flexibility of their athletes’ specifically about training program. Coaches can focus the training program especially on developing fundamental core and flexibility exercise program that will facilitate performance outcome.

1.6 Limitation

In conducting experimental study, there will be limitations that might occur:

The commitment of subjects. All subjects that have been selected in this study were asked to participate in every test. Some of them were without their acknowledgment as only the coaches were informed about the experiment before the researcher presence. So, this might affect the result of the test as some of the weightlifters were not ready.

The time constraints also can be one of the limitations because the subjects have their own training schedules and could not attend the test.

The subjects involved were the weightlifters under National Sport Council (MSN) supervision. Therefore, the commitment of the subjects cannot be fully gained. Most of the subjects were busy with their training and other program

Lack of assistant also the limitation of the study. There were only two persons to help conducting the experiment. Therefore, lack of manpower to provide support and demonstrating in gathering result.

Difficulties to understand the test procedure becomes the limitation on this test.

Maturity of the subjects also would be the limitation of this study. Their awareness of importance of the test to researcher was lack; therefore, some of them did not perform to their maximum level during the tests.

1.7 Delimitation

Delimitations define the generalizability of the study. This study was focusing at female weightlifters aged 19-24 years old core strength and flexibility. They were also elite athletes that play for state and national level which were currently active. These subjects were free from any injury especially lower back pain injury. This was to ensure the tests were done unbiased. Futhermore, the study was conducted in one day assessment at National Sport Council (MSN) Bukit Jalil gymnasium. The tests that used to measure the core strength and flexibility which were &-level sit up and Sit and Reach test were applied to all of the subjects. So, the data gained were come from the same tests that would not create bias when the data is analyzed.


In this study, it presumed that all the subjects are able to complete the task without any problem and hesitation from the instructions given. The study instrumentation was designed and select as regards to the target population profile. Therefore, the tests instruments are chose accordingly to high reliability and validity of research hypothesis.

The researcher also assumes that this study will be used by the subjects and their coach to gain knowledge on how to measure core strength and flexibility. The information and results of this study are important to coach to know the weaknesses of their athletes so that the problem can be fixed with some training and research.

The subjects are expected to give full commitment when performing the tests. It also assume that from this research study, the data collected and analyzes results will help in measuring core strength and flexibility as well as the relationship of these variables.

Definition of terms

Core muscles

The “core musculature” can be defined generally as the 29 pairs of muscles that support the lumbar-pelvic-hip complex in order to stabilize the spine, pelvis, and kinetic chain during functional movements. The core is also commonly referred to as the “powerhouse” or the foundation of all limb movement (Faries,2007).


Flexibility is generally defined as the range of motion of a joint or series of joints that are influenced by muscles, tendons, ligaments, bones, and bony structures. According to Nelson et. al. (2005).


Weightlifting is strength-power sport in which two lifts are contested the two lifts, in order of execution in a contest, are the snatch and the clean (Pierce et. al, 2006).


Strength can be defined as the ability to produce force, and this force can be isometric or dynamic (Pierce et. al, 2006).


Power production is the product of force and velocity (F x V) and is likely the most important factor in determining success in most sports, particularly weightlifting (Pierce et. al, 2006).

Core training

Core training can be defined as training designed specifically to address a core muscle or muscle action, whether performed individually or coactively to create a stable spine and torso. Core muscles include the musculature of the abdominal and low-back regions (Stephenson et. al, 2004).


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