Sport Science Energy Systems Assignment Physical Education Essay
The duration of as netball game is approximately around an hour split into four quarters of 15 minutes with a couple of minutes between each quarter. Netball can be played at different speeds depending on what the position is that the player is occupying at that time and whether or not the player is continuously running or moving in that position played, for example, the goal keeper (GK) only has to use energy and actually move is when the ball is down that end of the court, in that third. Where as the centre (C) has to be moving continuously up and down the court to receive the ball and to take an intercept. A full game consists of mainly high intensity throughout the game depending on the position. This includes mainly two processes that our body experiences of the ATP-PC body system for fast bursts of energy and the Lactic acid energy system for running and using a lot of energy for long periods of time, this system is mainly used for team sports because of the pauses throughout the game the player doesn’t usually go into the aerobic stage yet although if the game is intense and your constantly running and moving it is possible to go into your aerobic stage. Some players have around about the same intensity, some are different than others, and they can vary from player to player.
Explain how the ATP-PC system works. Describe the aspects of the game in which this is the predominant energy system.
ATP-PC is constantly being relied on at the beginning of any form of exercise regardless of what the intensity is. It is the first Energy System that our body goes into when experiencing any type of sport. People who play Netball use this system a lot and more than any of the other energy systems because netball players need that extra burst of energy to get the ball or to defend it, ATP-PC system has fast spurts of energy for this.
The ATP-PC system provides immediate energy bursts because of the breaking down process of the energy phosphates. If this energy system is fully stored and your body hasn’t used any of the ATP-PC system then the energy in your body will provide maximal power intensity for a short duration from between 10-15 seconds until your body moves into the next system, since your body hasn’t started using any fast and immediate energy burst it hasn’t broken down any phosphates, this will provide maximal energy as your body doesn’t need to replace any until you move into your next system and it provides you with the maximal amount of intensity because the ATP-PC has been produced; however the negative theory of the ATP-PC system is the bursts of energy run out quickly.
ATP-PC is used in netball because it has a high intensity for the short bursts of energy, such as sprinting. In netball when leading toward the ball you need to sprint to receive the ball or jump high for a pass. However the rest of the time you are either waiting for the ball to come down that end or third of the court or you might have gone past that system and have moved onto your lactic acid system.
Explain how the Lactic Acid system works. Describe the aspects of the game in which this is the predominant system.
To replace the ATP in your system when you play netball is the lactic acid system, this system is generally used for team sports and MED – HIGH intensity levels (85% or higher intensity). The Lactic Acid system’s only fuel is carbohydrates; this is what the Lactate runs on and is its only energy source. The Lactic acid system lasts from approximately 10 seconds to 3 minutes until your body moves on to the next energy system. This system is a complete breakdown of glucose being released into the muscles and starts to build up causing the muscles to become fatigue. Netball uses this system for fast bursts also as well as the ATP-PC system and it lasts for a decent time in team sports, but if used too much it can cause sore muscles, mainly in the legs due to the lactate running through your muscles. The lactic acid is conflicting with the muscle which is tensing and then expanding again because of the combination of the calcium and Troponin in your muscles. The acid encourages the nerves to separate influencing the lactic to cause pain within the muscle. When you push yourself too far your body can’t supply enough oxygen to your muscles quick enough there for your muscles will burn the glucose quicker and then produce a lot of lactic acid to your body, because of the build up of lactate your muscles will then become really sore after a game and will reduce your maximal effort that you are putting into the game.
Explain how Aerobic system works. Describe the aspects of the game in which this is a predominant system?
After the Lactic acid system is the Aerobic system, this system produces large amounts of energy even though it has the lowest intensity level of all our energy systems. Due to at the start of your exercise your body can not transport the oxygen to your muscles quick enough to begin the chemical reactions in the Anaerobic stages until you are in your Aerobic stage. The Aerobic stage is broken down into three different stages; Glycolysis, Citric acid cycle and lastly into the electron Transport chain. Firstly the Glycolysis is the breakdown of the carbohydrates (which is one of the aerobic system’s fuels) the Glycolysis breaks down into Pyruvic acid which forms into 2 ATP molecules which is a total of 10 separate chemical reactions and also takes place in the muscle. Once the Carbohydrates have broken down, the second transformation then develops which is called the Citric acid or the Tricarboxylic acid system. Other reactions also continue within our muscles to resynthesis the two ATP molecules as well. The by-products such as, Carbon Dioxide and hydrogen joins to the process, which then constructs into a chain reaction starting the cycle all over again. The Electron Transport Chain involves the Hydrogen noted above is located into the membranes of the Mitochondria and is then split into and atom and an electron which creates at lot of energy in preparation to resynthesise into ATP. In netball the Centre is using the aerobic system the most of all the players on the team as the Centre has to run from one end of the court to the other, if the game is really intense then she will be running constantly as the ball would be going from one end of the court to the other.
This proves that she has little rest to replenish all her PC at 100% as it takes 3 minutes to rest in a stationary position, but if the ball is in the goals circle then she may have some time to replenish but it highly likely that she won’t have replenished completely.
Choose a position/player in your sport. What percentage of game time would each of the energy systems be seen as the predominant system? Explain.
The Goal Defence;
Before the game has even started and all the players are in their positions, waiting for the whistle to be blown, the goal keeper is instantly using the aerobic system as she is standing there waiting for the game to commence. If she sprints for the ball, intercepts the ball or if she is defending the ball in the goals circle and jumps up to defend she is also instantly using the ATP-PC system for a fast burst which has high intensity levels and is the predominant source. If she continues running or sprinting for more than 15 seconds then she would then entre her lactic acid stage. Throughout the game she would be mostly using the aerobic system. In between each quarter of the game she would have replenished a high amount of her PC stores if not around 98% then her system will start all over again. If for most of the game the ball is down the other end of the court more often than it is at the other end of the court then this also gives time to recover for each energy system. It takes 20 -30 seconds for the ATP in our bodies to recover at least 50%, which works out to around 3 minutes for it to recover a complete 100%. (Although it varies for the type of sport that you are playing, 30 seconds or less for endurance, 30-90 seconds for hypertrophy, 2-3 minutes for strength and 3-5 minutes for power. Netball would be a power type of sport as it includes high intensity power bursts regularly.) If the game is really intense they may fit in 15-20 seconds of their recovery, which is only a small amount of time around 20-25% of their ATP-PC would be replenished. For a game that wouldn’t be as intense they may possibly reach up to half of their recovery but not completely. Your body may not fully recover after a high intensity Aerobic exercise for up to 3-4 days afterwards, but it all depends on how high the intensity was of the game.
Explain the accumulation of Lactic Acid and the required recovery time using the above percentages.
The accumulation of lactic acid is due to high the rate is in demand for lactate, when your body is demanding more and more lactate in a high intensity sport, your body produces more and more lactate until it reaches the point where there is so much that our body cant remove it quick enough and the concentration begins to rise to where there is a build up of lactate that isn’t being removed, if you stop whatever the sport or activity is the lactic acid does not get removed from the muscle then causes pain later on unless you do a recovery to remove it otherwise that’s what creates the soreness in your muscles. There are different ways that you can remove the lactic acid but it approximately takes up to an hour for it to be 100% replenished. To speed the process up one which removes it quickly would include a fast pace cool down which allows oxygen to the muscles and helps remove the lactate quicker.