Needs Analysis And Applied Intervention Proposal Physical Education Essay
A client has agreed to take part in our case study and a needs analysis will be completed on their chosen sport. This will be split into three areas and they are psychology, nutrition and physiology.
Background information of coach/ performer/ team/sport
The participant is a 20 year old male cricketer who represents the Lancashire Cricket Club Academy and has been playing cricket from the age 10. The participant is an accomplished all rounder but his main strength is bowling. Therefore, the intervention proposal is based on the client’s bowling.
Traditionally, cricket is played in the summer where the bowlers will be required to bowl in hot and humid conditions (Burke et al, 1997). Cricket from a physiological perspective is a prolonged variable intensity team sport (Soo et al, 2007). Players are required to perform multiple bouts of intermittent exercise at near maximal effort, punctuated with intervals of low exercise intensity or rest for the duration of the match (Burke et al 1997; Shi et al, 1998).
Acts of bowling, batting and fielding primarily utilize the anaerobic energy system. Players are also required to stand for long periods of time, bending, stopping and squatting. These low-moderate paced exercises require good aerobic fitness (Patel, 2010).
The energy demands for fast bowling during one-day cricket suggests that fast bowlers deliver 64 deliveries (60 legal/ 4 wides or no-balls) in approximately 40 minutes. During this time bowlers are expected to run 1.9km in about 5.3miniutes at an average speed of 21.6km-h. When viewed in this context it is apparent that bowling in one day cricket is substantial (Noakes et al, 2000).
Noakes & Durandt (2000) researched the physiological requirements of international cricket players, they were compared against international rugby players and surprisingly very little difference in physiological attributes was found. The average sprint performance for the bowlers over 35 metres was 5.2 seconds. Therefore, when we test our client their scores can be compared to the literature.
The main aim of the client is to take over 60 wickets during the upcoming cricket season where he will play 22 matches. He wants his bowling average to be under 30.00 runs per wicket. This means that he has to concede less runs every time he claims a wicket which will test his bowling accuracy. If he can perform to these expectations he will be in contention for selection for the Lancashire Cricket Club second XI.
From an initial interview with the client, the client identified a number of weaknesses and limitations.
The Client felt that during the latter part of his bowling run-up he is slowing down instead of getting faster to increase momentum.
His bound (jump) during the critical stage of his bowling action was not satisfactory and felt he needed to bound at a greater height.
He feels that his head is falling over to the left hand side after he has delivered the ball.
He needs to improve his accuracy, he feels as if the ball is controlling him rather than him controlling the ball.
He has been getting reoccurring calf pains and he needs to treat it on a day to day basis. He feels pain in his left calf at the end of days play.
He feels he needs to improve his arm speed to help him deliver the ball with greater velocity.
He doesn’t have the confidence to deliver the ball with pace and accuracy. He feels he needs to sacrifice his maximum bowling pace for accuracy
He gets deflated when a batsman is dominating him during a spell of his bowling and finds it difficult to bounce back. (Anxiety and Self confidence)
As the client’s origin is Indian, He consumes Indian food. He feels his current diet is hindering his BMI and physique due to the increased fat intake such as fried rice and chicken tikka curries. However, he has no choice but to eat these types of foods in order to satisfy his culture and his family.
Figure 2: Baseline test scores for Physiology
Standing Vertical Jump
Arm Power (Hand Grip Dynamometer) (kg)
10 meter sprint (sec)
20 meter sprint (sec)
30 meter sprint (sec)
Figure 2 shows the baseline test scores that were carried out at the University Of Leicester cricket ground (See appendix for pictures).
The hand grip dynamometer was used to measure arm power because it is widely known that hand grip strength is a possible predictor for overall body strength, including arm strength. But little information was available regarding this. Smith et al (2005) reported a correlation in grip strength and overall body strength.
Our client scored a vertical jump score of 59.2cm which in comparison to the norm data for 16-20 years it is ranked as above average (Davies et al 2000). However when comparing to elite performers our client ranks in the lowest 40% for male elite athletes (Chu, 1996). It has also been reported that the average jump height for an Academy level pace bowler is 60.5cm (Gore, 2000).
Figure 2 show that our client does not meet the suggested values for vertical jump. Therefore, there is a deficiency in their leg power. This supports the needs analysis about the client’s bound (jump) during the critical stage of their bowling action. The client feels that they need to execute their bound at a greater height.
Figure 3: Nutritional
Test/food Dairy Value
Skinfold Body fat estimate
Durnin and Wolmersley (1974) Equation
Body mass index
Mean daily Calorie intake
Mean daily Calorie intake
Figure 3 shows that the bowler needs to reduce their body fat % from 19% to 12%. It has been suggested that a cricketer needs to have a body fat % of around 12-14% (Noakes et al, 2000.).
Therefore, setting a weight goal would be appropriate. The target body weight formula allows you to determine your target body weight and the formula is used by athletes who want to reduce their body fat percentage (Macedonia et al, 2009).
Figure 4: The Client’s 5 Day Calorie intake
Current Non Training day intake
Current Training day intake
Figure 4.1: Mean intake of grams consumed for training and non training days
Mean Intake in grams per day
Figure 4 and 4.1 show the client’s total calorie intake, the percentage of each food category that they consume and the amount of grams they consume for each food category.
Figure 5: Cunningham Formula
CUNNINGHAM FORMULA: 500+ (22X FFM in kg) = RMR
500+ (22 x 63.99) = RMR
Resting Metabolic Rate = 1907 KCAL
Figure 5 shows The Cunningham Formula which is a prediction equation that is considered one of the best ways to estimate Resting Metabolic Rate for athletes because it incorporates body composition. This would be useful for the Bowler to calculate so he can consume the right amount of calories on his non-training days (Macedonia et al, 2009).
Figure 5.1: Target Body weight
Current weight: 173.8lbs
Fat Free Mass: 140.8lbs
Current Body Fat%: 19%
Recommended Body Fat: 12%
Figure 5.1 shows the target body weight the client has to achieve in order to reach the recommended body fat % value (see appendix for calculation).
Figure 5.2: Target weight Formula: Target Body Weight = current fat-free mass / (1- % desired body fat)
140.8 / (1 – 0.12)
140.8/ 0.88 = 163.4lbs
173.8 – 163.4 lbs = 10.4 lbs
Target weight loss= 10.4 lbs
Figure 5.1 illustrates the target weight formula and shows that the bowler needs to reduce 10.4 lbs of fat free mass to reach his goal of 12% body fat (See appendix for calculation).
Figure 5.3: Calories Needed to build muscle and lose fat
To gain Muscle Mass and lose muscle mass simultaneously
Baseline Kcal plus 300
1907.08 kcal + 300 = 2207.08
Figure 5.3 shows the client’s calorie intake for their training day. Their baseline Kcal is their RMR (see Figure 5). In order to gain muscle and lose fat the athlete has to increase their calorie intake by 300 kcal from their RMR. The revised calorie intake can be used during their training day. Therefore, the athlete has an accurate reading of the amount of calories they can consume during their training and non training days (Macedonia et al, 2009).
Non Training Day Calorie Intake 1907 kcal:
Grams (g) during Non Training Day
65% of Carbohydrates of 1907 Kcal: 1240 kcal
12% of Proteins of 1907 Kcal: 229 kcal
20% Of Fats of 1907 Kcal: 381 kcal
3% of Micronutrients of 1907 kcal: 57 Kcal
Training Day Calorie Intake 2207 kcal:
Grams (g) during Training Day
70% of Carbohydrates of 2207 Kcal: 1545 kcal
15% of Proteins of 2207 Kcal: 331 Kcal
12% Of Fats of 2207 Kcal: 265 Kcal
3% of Micronutrients of 2207 kcal: 66 Kcal
Figure 6 and 6.1 shows the total amount of calories the Fast Bowler needs to consume during his training and non training days in order to reach his goals (See Needs Analysis, Figure 1).
Figure 7: Psychology
It has been reported that for team sports, athletes should have CSAI-2 values lower than 18 out of 36 in terms of Cognitive anxiety, 16 out of 36 for somatic anxiety and they should score higher than 24 for Self Confidence (Martens et al, 2000). Our client does not meet the suggested values for somatic and cognitive anxiety (19 Cognitive, 18 Somatic). This supports the client’s weakness of getting deflated when a batsman is dominating him during a spell of his bowling and how he finds it difficult to bounce back.
The Client’s Weaknesses
The Client leg power needs to be improved (See Figure 2).
The client is consuming a big proportion of fats in their diet. This can be shown in their body fat percentage and their current fat percentage intake (See Figure 4).
The client’s somatic anxiety is higher than it should be (See Figure 7).
Identification of areas for improvement
It is important for cricketers, especially bowlers, to have high levels of strength and power in their legs. Pyne et al (2006) suggested that static jump performance and arm length correlated positively with bowling speed and performance. Our client had a mean score of 59.2cm in the vertical jump test and the average for an Academy level pace bowler is 60.5cm (Gore, 2000) Therefore, we have decided to look at improving the client’s leg power to improve bowling speed and performance. Our client will need to alter his diet to cope with the stresses of the intervention that will have on his body. A sustained high protein diet is needed to repair the damage inflicted on the muscles (Stevens, 2010).
Having a low body fat percentage is important in modern day Cricket due to the high physical demands of the sport. Noakes & Durandt (2000) suggested that fast bowlers need to have a body fat percentage of around 12-14%. Our client falls short of this target (See Figure 3). It has been reported that fast bowlers in particular, benefit from low levels of body fat. A lower body fat composition helps a bowler, bowl faster, be more agile, have increased stamina so they can bowl for longer spells and be more tolerable of the heat (Meltzer et al, 2005).
In terms of carbohydrates our client needs to consume 60-70% of their daily energy intake. In the 5 days assessed our client reached that value for 3 of the 5 days (see figure 4). In terms of the client’s protein intake, the recommended percentage for athletes is about is 12-15% or 1.4-1.7g protein. Kg-1 body mass. Day -1. In the 5 days assessed our client exceeded the recommended value for 2 of the 5 days and they were under the value from 2 of the 5 days. Protein is important for strength athletes assuming that the total energy intake is sufficient to cover their high daily expenditure and the remaining energy is provided by fats (Lemon et al, 1991).
We are looking at lowering our client’s anxiety levels and primarily focusing on lowering his somatic anxiety. It is recommended for any sport a player needs to score 18/36 or higher for the CSAI-2 questionnaire (Martens et al, 2000). The client scored in the CSAI-2 Questionnaire. Therefore, we are primarily looking at lowering his somatic anxiety. However, the proposed intervention should decrease cognitive anxiety which is borderline to what is required at present. Anxiety has a negative effect on performance. This is explained by a process called the processing efficiency theory (Eysenck et al, 1992). The theory states that when an athlete becomes anxious, the athlete strives to work harder and exerts an increased effort in order to overcome their anxiety. The increased effort has a detrimental effect in their execution of their technique. There gets to a point where the athlete can’t cope with the psychological rigors of carrying out the skill and ends up giving up. Therefore, we need to lower our client’s somatic anxiety as it will improve our client’s physiological responses.
Communication Model and Outline of Intervention
The information regarding the intervention will be passed onto our client via weekly meetings. A meeting will take place before the intervention and will involve us, the client and the coach; we will discuss whether the client wants the coach present. The logistics of the intervention and how the intervention will improve the client’s performance will also be discussed at the meeting.
The Intervention will be over 8 weeks and involve plyometric training. The reason for having the intervention for 8 weeks is because it has been reported that to get any improvement in performance at least 8 weeks of plyometric and strength training needs to be completed (Fletcher, 2004). Plyometrics are being used to develop leg power as it has been widely reported that plyometrics has improved leg strength (Blakely et al, 1987).
To lower the clients anxiety levels he will undertake relaxation techniques including self talk and goal setting techniques as they have been found to lower anxiety (Fletcher et al, 2001). The client will have the freedom to undertake these techniques anytime during the intervention when the client and the coach feel necessary. The client will also use imagery when he feels his technique is declining due to the batsman dominating them during a spell of bowling. This will help reduce the client’s anxiety which is having a negative effect on his technique. Imagery helps re-run the predicted patterns of movements and this will make the client more comfortable to a real life bowling situation (Hale et al, 1998).
The client will be given a food diary at the beginning of the 8 week intervention so they can complete it accordingly. This will be reassessed after the 8 week intervention to see if they have been following the recommended calorie intake values for training and non training days (see figure 6 and 6.1). They will also be given a rough eating plan on their training and non training days. They don’t have to follow it specifically but it gives them a guideline on what types of food they need to consume. (See appendix for eating plans)
Data gathered from the intervention along with pre and post testing will be shown to the client. If the client wants his coach to analyse the data then it will be provided for the coach to examine.
Before testing, written informed consent and a medical history questionnaire were completed by the participant (Copies can be found in the appendix).
Interaction of intervention with other aspects of performance
It has been reported that strength training has an effect on anxiety. Tsutsumi et al (1998) reported that a group of athletes undertook strength training and found out they had lower levels of anxiety compared to a group who didn’t take part in any strength training.
The introduction of plyometrics training will improve his leg power which in turn will improve his sprint speed (Maulder, 2004).
Research suggests that consumption of certain foods intervene the performance of certain physiological parameters. The Vo2 max and body fat percentage was measured in elite South African cricketers; 56.ml.kg.min & 13% body fat (Noakes et al, 2000).
We also are aware that any improvements in performance could be down to any of the exercises that the client completes during the intervention