Chapter-V Discussion, conclusion and Recommendations
It is relatively easy to appreciate that one of the major issues in regard of the over all health scenario concerned their value to the prisons correctional system. The present research has uncovered the fact that there may included be several problem involved with the administrative, organizational and facilities regarding prison sports as well as establishing respectable physical activities program in a variety of institution including prisons.
The long term inmates have suffered dispersal policy. This policy hold that prisons must be concerned with security first and for most, with other issues being unimportant. In the process sum of the program which have suffered include education and recreation. This is problematic because such programs help to lower tension in prisons and build better relationship between staff and inmates.
The researcher found that most conventional social activities in prison are sedentary, non-physically active, and similar types of pursuits. One of the major problems in prison recreation and sports is that it primarily serve the purpose of alleviating boredom and passing the time more quickly.
Various prisoners made demand to the researcher that there must be a provision to reduce the amount of time spent in there barracks and increase the amount of time for sports activities. They also insisted that better sports facilities must be provided. Model Prison Manual, (2003) of India, states the presence of physical educator in every jail. Despite the injunction by the model prison the researcher found no physical educator in any of the jails undertaken in the study and the allotted time for sports activities was inadequate and the necessary facilities regarding any type of physical activities had not been provided. The lack of government funds, detrimental social attitude and legislation, limited staff, over crowding, inadequate facilities, spars equipments and old fashioned recreational philosophy reduce the chances of inmate to get engage in systematic sports and physical activities.
Many inmates recognize that very limited sports facilities (31.91%) are available to them whereas large number of inmates (82.82 %) are interested in sports activities which are not offered often, the stated sports facility needs of inmates are not even considered when developing any program for the jail upliftment.
Another problem with prison sports programs involves factors associated with motivation. Inmates often participated in activities for the rewards such as escape from work, trophies and better diet etc. All these extrinsic motivational factor are likely to produce lesser chances of enhancing self image, confidence are likely to shallow. According Card (1983) inmates who take part in recreational activity because of there own personnel interest will likely reap greater benefits than those who become involve primarily through the persuasion.
The Government of India ranked the use of sports and other physical activities, high alongwith higher education, establishing the family health and welfare, defense of the country and work for modern India to lead the country at the global plane. Recreation and other sports activities have been the means of obtaining many individual and social benefits. Constructive use of physical activities gives human beings and outlet for creativity and self expression. According to Nash (1971), “this drive may be expressed high on a scale in terms of be expressed high on a scale in terms of be explorer, inventor, discoverer, or in the limitless typed of hobbies. Recreation has not only played an important part in the treatment program of the mentally ill, but it has kept patient well.”
In the light of the preceding discussion, sports may be potentially valuable rehabilitative tools in correction of moral behavior of prisoners. By having the discussion of the researcher with the prisoners in various jails, it had been concluded that physical activities & sports and their related facilities would give more balanced life to prisoners and those who are not able are willing the participate in physically active sports should have other options available to them.
McDermott. & King (1989), found that prisoners are very much involve with physical education for two basic purposes. First it helps to defend against a prisoners physical mental decline. Second it help a better relationship between the prisoners and the prison staff.
Following the analysis of data generated during the study following were the main findings: sports facilities and their administration were inadequate and poorly administered, the programs in relation to sports lacked specific goals, the programs help pass the time but served no rehabilitative purpose, there was very little carry-over value of prison activities because many of the sports facilities were inadequate, and attitudes towards recreational activities were mostly before one’s incarceration and would rarely be changed by sparse existing rehabilitation and physical activities programs in Uttar Pradesh Mandal Jails.
Flynn (1974), “Observed reason for limited recreational activities is due to the staff concerned for the security. The greater amount of security that is required, the greater amount it well coast. There is usually a shortage of staff at institution which creates problems with general security procedures. If security is a problem with a general prison population, physical activities programs may provide greater burden on security.”
A good prison sports program must be well planned to suit the needs of inmates. Forced participation would defeat the purpose of corrections. With careful planning and developing large number of facilities and activities can be provided for the prisoners in any prison. The introduction of community based sports programs with the quality of recreation opportunity as well as the creative reintegration of an offender with his or her family and within greater social system. Security, however, must still be considered apriority for the community. Muth (1974) opined that “having the capability of participating in recreational activities with one’s partner and/or children gives the offender a much better opportunity to keep his/her family intact”.
According to World Health Organization (2003) the prisoner must be treated as “complete” “whole” person. The recreation aspect of life is stressed to help the offender in this way.
During incarceration, inmates suffer the loss of many things: freedom, a sense of reality, sensory experiences, and the reality of who they are. Through participation in sports and other activities, inmates can experience some limited control over these areas for short period of time. The participation will also help on offender in the re-socialization process. Who believes that an inmates need to be seen as a total person for them to become better citizens and recreation through basic sports facilities within the prisons walls is a part of this concept.
Though Model Prison Manual, 2003 of India did mention about the ‘Physical Training Instructor’ under the ‘Educational Personnel’ of administrative frame-work of jail personnel, but forget to mention the duties of ‘Physical Training Instructor’ under the heading ‘Duties of Educational Personnel’. This itself shows the lack of awareness, among the jail policy-makers, about the importance of games and sports for the rehabilitation of incarcerated persons.
Special discussion is required for the Kanpur Mandal Jail due to the fact that the Senior Superintendent of Jail denied the permission the carryout the proposed research work though the researcher produced all the relevant documents of permission and orders to collect the data from the highest authority of Uttar Pradesh Jails, i.e. the Director General of Jail, Jail Administration & Reform Services, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow. The administrator of the Kanpur District Jail did not comply with the orders and repudiate the researcher to access into the jail premise to collect the relevant data for the present study. The similar administrator told the researcher to go away from his office immediately and escorted the researcher up to the main gate of the jail to ensure the exit of the researcher from the jail premise. Hence the researcher could not collect data from the Kanpur Mandal Jail due to the preceding mishappening.
Discussion On Hypothesis:
The first hypothesis in the chapter-I was mentioned as ‘Jails do not have an effective organizational set-up for sports.’ As it has been found during the survey of all the Mandal Jails of Uttar Pradesh that the organizational set-up is not up to the mark for sports as has been depicted in the following Figure:
Column Diagram of Organizational Set-up of Uttar Pradesh Jails
Hence, the first hypothesis of the study has been achieved.
The second hypothesis in the chapter-I was mentioned as ‘Jails do not have an effective sports administrative setup to ensure proper growth and development of jail inmates.’ As it has been found during the survey of all the Mandal Jails of Uttar Pradesh that the administrative set-up is not up to the mark for sports as has been depicted in the following Figure:
Column Diagram of Administrative Set-up of Uttar Pradesh Jails
Hence, the second hypothesis of the study has been achieved.
The third hypothesis in the chapter-I was mentioned as ‘Jails do not have proper infrastructural facilities in term of play fields, equipments, coaching facilities etc.’ As it has been found during the survey of all the Mandal Jails of Uttar Pradesh that the infrastructural facilities is not up to the mark for sports as has been depicted in the following Figure:
Column Diagram of Infrastructural Facilities of Uttar Pradesh Jails
Hence, the third hypothesis of the study has been achieved.
4. The fourth hypothesis in the chapter-I was mentioned as ‘Jails (of All Mandals in Uttar Pradesh) do not have an ideal set-up for sports.’ The researcher has taken the Model Prison Manual, 2003 of India as the criterion for ideal set-up. The preceding manual states that every jail should have one physical training instructor (page no.44, chapter- 4.03.4-b) under the Educational Personnel but the researcher did not find any physical training instructor in any of the jails of Uttar Pradesh Mandal. Hence, the fourth hypothesis of the study has also been achieved.
Prisoners often appear to have high rates of recidivism partly as a result of feeling of certainty about their ability to succeed on the outside world. This study does not suggest any co-relation between the availability and use of existing facilities for use of sports and the correction in offenders’ behaviors. It only suggests, by review of literature and discussion with prisoners that it is possible that participating in sports can have long term effects if there continued after release from prison. Here the researcher opines that if the prisoners keep themselves physically active and goal oriented in prison, they may accomplish the same purpose outside of prison. The study suggests the inadequate facilities for sports and non-availability of ‘physical training instructor’ in the prisons, often hamper the proper planned physical activities for prisoners. The respondents of the study were prisoners and various jails administrators. Almost all the respondents argued that sports acted as a release for aggressive energy rather than contributing to further aggression.
Given the results of the study in chapter four the government of India, with the prisons, should strive for two main objectives: (i) social control and (ii) rehabilitation. Recreation with the help of sports and other physical activities should be implemented for the former, while education should be implemented for the latter.
There should be a post of Physical Training Instructor to conduct program of demanding physical activities for jail inmates.
Along with the unemployment and poverty, sports and recreation programs should be viewed as the establishment of a general strategy to improve the opportunity of improvement in jail inmates.
Recommendations are made for the development of sports or recreation programs as a preventative role for youth-at-risk; and the development of sporting and recreation facilities and opportunities for inmates including financial assistance for sports facilities and development of any existing facilities.
It is suggested that for any long term change to occur the programs need to offer follow-up program. The same is true for physical activities programs which should be considered as only a partial solution for the crime rate in India.
More qualitative empirical data should be gathered for the sports programs and its inclusion in jail programs.
Further researches are needed to provide holistic view of the relationship between various physical activities and crime records.
It is suggested to consider a requirement to monitor program to a consistent, minimum standard for the introduction and development of sports facilities for jai inmates.
Various sports federations should be encouraged to participate and promote sports activities in jails for correctional recreational.
It is also suggested that a clear setup post-program opportunities for participation in various physical activities, particularly in programs with objective of developing the offender’s participation to being and independent activity.
Clear and systematic communication between any external organization running a physical activity program and the jail official responsible for over-seeing the program.
Explicit acknowledgement of achievement by inmates’ participations in various games and sports, if appropriate by formal awards.
A high quality of staff delivering the physical activity programs should be posted at every jail, not simply to deliver the activity but more importantly to achieve the difficult mix of being able to develop personal & social skills, engender mutual respect and maintain a clear behavioral code and discipline.
Consensus statement on physical activity programs promotion in prisons should be drafted by all the research agencies and universities running physical education courses in order to facilitate to raise standards in health promotion of prisoners by engaging in different forms of physical activities.
It is recommended that whenever imprisonment in imposed, however, loss of freedom constitutes the punishment; health and wellbeing must not be compromise.
Sports in prison communities requires immediate financial boost in this blessed land of forth-coming xix Common Wealth Games, New Delhi- 3 – 14 October, 2010.
Government of India should establish special programs, through existing tertiary institutions and distance courses, to train jail administrators for physical activities and sports.
Directorate General of Jail and other similar agency issue or verify the identity card of the researcher on their letterpad in order to smooth conductance of the research work.
The use of community sports and recreational resources must be emphasized.
The purpose and content of sports and other recreational programs in all the jail settings must be redefined.
Physical activities, leisure services and various sports programs must become an integral component of the inmates treatment process.
Recreational & rehabilitative programs should be based on more extensive and reliable analysis in order to ensure high quality programs.
Newer study may be taken to analyze the number of sports persons and their participation in jails.
Government should allocate separate budget for intensive sports programs aiming for the rehabilitation and to promote wellness, a healthy life style and decrease medical treatment as envisaged by the World Health Organization (2003).