Bio Mechanical Analysis Of Throwing Techniques
The game of cricket is believed to have been played in organized form hundreds of years ago. Cricket was introduced to North America via the English colonies in the 17th century (Bowen., 1970), probably before it had even reached the north of England. In the 18th century it arrived in other parts of the globe. It was introduced to the West Indies by colonists (Bowen., 1970), and to India by British East India Company mariners in the first half of the century (Altham.1962). It arrived in Australia almost as soon as colonization began in 1788. New Zealand and South Africa followed in the early years of the 19th century (Altham., 1962).
The origins of cricket are very vague, and many theories have been put forward suggesting its origins. The pupils of Royal Grammar School, Guildford, recorded the first evidence of cricket being played in the year 1550. In the year 1611 it is reported that two young men from Sussex were punished for playing cricket instead of going to the church. The first match is recorded to have been played at Coxheath in Kent in the year 1646 (Altham., 1962). Extensive studies and research have been conducted to trace its history and they have come out with different versions (Altham., 1962).The modern version of the game originated in England and remains popular in present and former members of the English Commonwealth. In South Asian countries – including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka – cricket is the most popular and scientific sport.
Bowling, batting and fielding are three key skills in cricket; much of the biomechanical research into this sport has focused on bowling and batting (Bartlett et al., 1996).The one of the most third skill that of fielding incorporates both a pick-up and throwing phase, highlighting the importance of the throwing skill in cricket. Throwing technique in general used by the elite cricket players are, comparable over arm, side arm, and under arm throwing techniques, has been widely studied in other sports, including track and field (Best et al., 1993, Maeda., 2008), and baseball (Escamilla et al., 1998, Dun et al., 2008).Only one study has been reported in calculating biomechanical parameters in that Cricket ball throwing (Cook, and Strike., 2000).
Throwing is a fundamental movement skill that forms the cornerstone of many games (Elliott and Anderson., 1990); the development of this skill could be paramount for some athletes. Every movement in a throwing motion counts, even the breathing. There are different types of throws that a thrower must be able to throw accurately. There are numerous aspects of throwing making it a complex skill to master, such as ball velocity, ball movement, arm velocity, and arm movement. However these aspects have little effect if the thrower cannot place their throws precisely, that is to say, throw strikes. Even though throwing accuracy can be increased by improving technique and practicing muscle memory (Simons et al., 2009), coaches are constantly seeking other means. cricket, as are many sports, is mentally challenging. For throwing to be successful, they must be mentally and mechanically strong.
This has led to many different methodologies being used to analyze the biomechanics of the Biomechanical analysis of throwing techniques. Different temporal, kinematic, and kinetic parameters are selected based upon their necessity for each individual study. Also a variety of methods are being used to collect the motion data including varying numbers and locations for 2D and 3D motion analysis research.
In the last several decades, sports biomechanics has demonstrated considerable growth evolving from an exercise to the filming of human movement to an applied science with the powerful array of measurement and modeling sports techniques. The descriptive approach has superseded by attempt to explain the mechanics and has emerged as an important area of scientific investigation in variety of disciplines ranging from classical mechanics to the life sciences, includes: theoretical mechanics, anatomy, anthropometry, neuromuscular physiology, kinesiology, biomechanical engineering, ergonomics, exercise science, orthopedic surgery, physical rehabilitation and corrective physical education. In Biomechanics extensive researches have been conducted in the interaction of arm and legs, in walking, running, throwing analyzing during the course of action of play with different approach, angles and direction under the part of the study of biomechanical engineering .
The kinematic and kinetic performance analysis of biomechanical engineering permit the explanation of dynamics of human motion, researchers interested in solving specific problem in human mechanics, such as determining how a given sports skill, improved by modeling, computer simulation, optimization and other statistical approach to motion analysis the increasing involvement of technology has made some other methods and tools available for tracking and assessing motion. Numbers of laboratories around the world are now working on movement analysis. These laboratories primarily work in neurological, neuromuscular, and orthopedic disorders of locomotion. However, there are also important works being done in analyzing sports engineering and sports-related movement. Movement analysis is automatically a part of human performance assessment and analysis. Today many sports scientists use movement analysis as a tool to origin new techniques and establishment of movement, correct movement errors related to a variety of movements.
Origin of the concept of biomechanical analysis of throwing technique was evaluated in 1968; the journal of biomechanics was first published with the broadly stated purpose of mechanical principles to the mechanical analysis of throwing technique. Analytical methods used within sports biomechanics as a part of performance and technique analysis. The concept of technique analysis as a specific sequence of movement appears to be well established in the literature, but the concept of technique analysis is still under developed. Although several descriptive and analytical goals for technique analysis can be identified, the main justification given for its used is to aid in the improvement of performance. However, the conceptual framework underpinning this process is poorly developed with a lack of distinction between technique and performance.
Biomechanical analysis of throwing technique is a good way to improve the throwing technique of the cricket players. Indeed computer simulation makes possible to validate investigation on throwing movement understanding in the modern computerized system, software program, it is now possible to make sufficient calculation, statistical evaluation. The limited research into the basic mechanisms underlying specific cricket throws highlights the need for more information directly applicable to the enhancement of the performance in the games of cricket for `elite’ cricketer. Only (Cook, and Strike., 2000, Elliott and Anderson 1990) have tried to quantify, in two and three dimensions analysis of, the throwing technique adopted in cricket. (Elliott and Anderson 1990) the study were concerned age related differences in high performance over arm throwing technique pattern, not specifically the mature pattern of throwing in cricket. It has been shown that throwing is an important aspect of the cricket sports and that a sound understanding of throwing technique can facilitate improvements in throwing performance in any games and sports but cricket is the game in which win or lose of the game mostly depended throwing techniques and throwing performance of the team members. There is an increasing emphasis on good fielding in cricket; it could be that three or four quality fielders are as important bowlers who have the ability to take wickets. (Fleisig et al., 1996a) contended that, although there are similarities in all overhand throws, there are quantifiable differences in the mechanics for various sports. Here, we review the literature on throwing and then analysis the three-dimensional characteristics of throwing technique of an elite cricketer, drawing comparisons with previous research.
Previous study on the role of biomechanical analysis of throwing technique focused mainly on baseball, tennis, volley ball, and athletics. Not many studies have been undertaking on the role of biomechanical analysis of throwing technique in cricket or relevant throwing technique. This study related some little aspect from the study by Cohen et al. (1994) for the applicable to netball and cricket player using overhead action in performing the throw. A major different was the unavailability of sophisticated tool to perform the mechanical analysis of throwing technique or calculating the speed of the ball release toward the enhancement of the performance.
Understanding of human movement is one the most and complex studies with the regarding of the mechanical aspect and thus in sports. To attain the highest level of sports performance needs immense quantity of skillful movement. The performance in any sport depends only on motor action or movement. The skill serves as basic element and indispensable for good performance. Fielding is the one of the most important skill in the game. In every sport the techniques has been changing with rules and regulation from time to time. To cope up with the changes constant understanding of the required variation call for attention. The complexity of techniques makes variation too minute to distinguishably determine the deviation without sophisticated tools. The non identification of the technique variation leads to inappropriate application and demote performances. The Indian’s cricket fielding performance (like, stopping the ball, catching and throwing) is showing low as the comparison with the International level trend with introduction of new techniques and implementations of mechanics in sports especially in cricket.
Initial researches, it appears as though the majority of the joint activity involved in throwing a cricket occurs in the upper body, specifically the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. This impression is acquired due to that fact that most professional cricket player’s injuries are related to the shoulder or elbow joints. The most common musculo-tendinous injuries sustained by baseball pitchers occur within the rotator cuff region (Mullaney et al., 2005). Since throwing is such a rigorous and repetitive motion, many of these injuries or failure in the performance can be attributed to overuse or improper mechanics.
The throwing motion can be broken down into several key temporal parameters based on distinct motions involved in every throws. Different studies use different temporal parameters based on the needs for the study. (Werner. Et al., 2001) broke down the throwing motion into three phases: stride foot contact to the instant of maximum shoulder external rotation (cocking phase), maximum external rotation to the instant of ball release (acceleration phase), and from ball release until 500 milliseconds after the ball has been released (follow-through phase).
Many studies and books such as (Layera., 2010), (Bartlett., 1997) and (Adrian., 1995) base their justifications for a good technique on the kinematic chain (occurrence of peak segment velocities from proximal to distal), starting with hip velocity and ending with wrist velocity. This investigation aims to confirm research done by the likes of Campbell et al (2010) and Chu et al (2009) that there are important aspects of the throwing action that occur below the waist, and also in the trunk. It should be noted that this study is not aimed in disagreement with the importance of the kinematic chain Bartlett.,(2007) and Hamill., (2003), but rather in agreement with the idea that the lower body forms a fundamental part of the throwing action and should therefore be taught to the same level of understanding as the function of the upper body. This will be achieved through the use of a case study using a skilled and less skilled performer, and comparing various lower body kinematic parameters.
Unless the specific study is looking at the kinematic and kinetic effects of different throws, the subjects being analyzed will throw fastballs at the desired target. This makes for more uniform sampling as well as easier data comparison among subjects because every player throws a fastball in a similar manner to achieve a high velocity and accuracy. It is rare to find testing or data collection performed during game situations. If this is the method chosen for data acquisition however, anatomical landmarks must be manually digitized and camera angles must be accommodating to the cricket field’s facilities and grounds. Most studies are performed in a lab with multiple-high speed cameras at various angles to capture all of the reflective markers located on the body to calculate various kinematic and kinetic parameters.
Analysis of throwing technique has been the basis for many studies across a range of sports; these have served to identify important variables and characteristics of throwing performance to facilitate analysis and understanding, many researchers have divided the throwing action into specific phases, each with its own biomechanical function (Elliott and Anderson, 1990). Although the throw can be divided into specific phases, this does not infer a discontinuous action but serves only to aid subsequent analysis (Elliott and Anderson., 1990). Subdivision of the throwing technique has enabled important variables of performance to be identified within each phase, in addition to an overview of technique in which the whole body can be seen to work in a coordinated fashion to achieve its goal.
The main aim of the study biomechanical analysis of throwing techniques in cricket was to asses, the role of mechanical factor that may affect effective throwing in cricket. In this study the effect of selected biomechanical analysis of throwing techniques in the different angle of approach at different direction and distance, with maximum velocity and accuracy was investigated. There are considerable numbers of different joint involved in throwing, but the purpose of the study the focus was on upper extremities and more specifically shoulder complex.
The biomechanical analysis of throwing technique is the answer to full fill existential vacuum, refinement and stabilization of the game and sports in growing competitive sporting world to the changing demand. At the international level of competition a minute variation may result in win or lose. Every nation is backing their sports person with biomechanical researches to accomplish the need. However there have been fewer researches in the field of cricket ball throwing technique at inter-national level specially relevance of throwing mechanism. (Freston et al., 2007), has studied the factor involved/associated with throwing velocity and accuracy in elite/ sub elite cricket players. (Sachlikidis and Salter., 2007), found that non dominant arm throws had significantly lower maximum lead knee lift, had significantly less elbow flexion before extension, had significantly less shoulder external rotation at the start of the arm acceleration phase. (Cook and Strike., 2007), found the greater elbow flexion at lead foot contact and less external rotation during the preparation phase.(Bartlet., 2001), cited that the practical value of performance analysis was that well-chosen performance indicators highlight good and bad technique or performance. More emphasis has been given in biomechanical analysis of throwing technique in bowling throws in cricket at international level.
Other developing countries have made their changes according to demand and thus superseded Indian performance. Indian cricket player need support from our researchers to identify variation and variables to steer their performance to those golden days of dominating world cricket. The mechanical factor of throwing involves ballistic movement of one segment. The imparting force must overcome the inertia of an object. But, in general, throwing is a sequential action of chain of body segments, leading to high velocity motion of external objects. It thus results in the production of a summated velocity at the end of the chain of segment used and the path of the external object motion in accordance to the demand of situation and position, throwing technique in general used by the elite cricket Fielders are, underarm throw, side arm throw, and overhead throw
India has not even set to its initial in the biomechanical researches in any field. In India no such research have been undertaking till date in biomechanics. In the computer era, the motion analyses software and programming made biomechanical research specially in kinematics possible to read the athletes motion .The throwing skills in cricket have received very less biomechanical research attention than any other. Throwing is a complex motor movement and therefore generally follows different predictable stages. The theoretical concept have conclusively defines that elite sportsmen of skilled levels and within skill levels exhibits to have mechanical variability.
Thus the present research has been taken to find out various throwing techniques in relation to medicinal aspect of high skilled cricket players.
A biomechanical analysis evaluates the motion of a living organism and the effect of forces on the living organism. The biomechanical approach to movement analysis can be qualitative, with movement observed and described, meaning that some aspect of the movement measured. The use of the term biomechanics in this text incorporates qualitative components with a more specific quantitative approach. In such an approach, the motion characteristics of a human or an object are described using such parameters as speed and direction, how the motion is created through application of forces both inside and outside the body, and the optimal body positions and actions for efficient, effective motion.
The biomechanical analysis of different event can help to understand the critical point of technical performance thus helping coaches and athletes in their preparation. One area of major concentration over the past few years is that of biomechanical analysis. Human motion analysis is frequently used today for both clinical and research application the art and science of motion analysis has expanded beyond basic descriptions of ambulatory patterns to include front line clinical roles in rehabilitation, surgery, prosthetics, orthotics, Ergonomics and Athletics.
A biomechanical analysis conducted from either of two perspectives. The first, kinematics and second kinetics. Kinematics is concerned with motion characteristics and examines motion from a spatial and temporal perspective without reference to the forces causing the motion. A kinematic analysis involves the description of movement to determine how fast an object is moving, how high it goes, or how far it travels. Thus, position, velocity, and acceleration are the components of interest in a kinematic analysis. By examining an angular or linear movement kinematically, one can identify segments of a movement that require improvement, obtain ideas and technique enhancements from elite performers, or break a skill down into identifiable parts. By each of these, further understanding of human movement. Pushing on a table may or may not move the table, depending upon the direction and strength of the push. A push or pull between two objects that may or may not result in motion is termed a force.
Kinetics is the area of study that examines the forces acting on a system, such as the human body, or any object. A kinetic movement analysis attempts to define the forces causing a movement. A kinetic movement analysis is more difficult than a kinematic analysis both to comprehend and to evaluate, by a significant amount if the weight of the body lifted and the speed of the bar were not considered. The forces produced during human movement are very important, since they are responsible for creating all of our movements and for maintaining positions or postures having no movement. The assessment of these forces represents the greatest technical challenge in this field, since it requires sophisticated equipment and significant expertise. Thus, for the novice movement analyst, concepts relating to maximizing or minimizing force production in the body will be more important than evaluating the actual forces themselves. A kinetic analysis can provide the teacher, therapist, coach, or researcher with valuable information about how the movement produced or how a position maintained. This information can direct conditioning and training for a sport or movement. For example, kinetic analyses performed by researchers have identified weak and strong positions in various joint movements. Thus, one know that the weakest position for starting an arm curl is with the weights hanging down and the forearm straight. If the same exercise started with the elbow slightly bent, more weight can lifted. Kinetics also identifies the important parts of a skill in terms of movement production. Examinations of both the kinematic and kinetic components are essential to full understanding of all aspects of a movement. It is also important to study the kinematic and kinetic relationships, since any acceleration of a limb, of an object, or of the human body is a result of a force applied at some point, at a particular time, of a given magnitude, and for a particular duration. While it is of some use merely to describe the motion characteristics kinematically.
Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics which describes the motion of objects without consideration of the causes leading to the motion. The other branch is dynamics, which studies the relationship between the motion of objects and its causes. Kinematics is not to be confused with kinetics, and to dynamics as used in modern day physics; this term is no longer in active use.
Kinematics is the branch of biomechanics concerned with the study of movement with reference to the amount of time taken to carry out the activity. Kinematics is the branch of biomechanics concerned with describing the motion of bodies, thus kinematics deal with such things as how far a body moves, how fast it moves and how consistently it moves. It is not concerned at all with the cause of motion of the body. In other words we can say – The kinematics is that branch of biomechanics, which concerned with description of the movement of segment of the body without regard to the forces and cause due to the movement occurred.
We are concerned with the relation and conclusion of different kinematics variables. In the cricket ball throw with the different technique of the cricket player, body movement like the movement of upper extremities (upper arm, forearm, hand) and ball how much upper arm moves, how much forearm moves, how much hand moves, from initial point and how accurate ball moves.
Rotational or angular kinematics is the description of the rotation of an object. The description of rotation requires some method for describing orientation, for example, the Euler angles. In what follows, attention is restricted to simple rotation about an axis of fixed orientation. The z-axis has been chosen for convenience.
Description of rotation then involves these three quantities:
Angular position: The oriented distance from a selected origin on the rotational axis to a point of an object is a vector r ( t ) locating the point. The vector r ( t ) has some projection (or, equivalently, some component) r ( t ) on a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation. Then the angular position of that point is the angle Î¸ from a reference axis (typically the positive x-axis) to the vector r ( t ) in a known rotation sense (typically given by the right-hand rule).
Angular velocity: The angular velocity Ï‰ is the rate at which the angular position Î¸ changes with respect to time t.
ANGULAR SPEED AND VELOCITY:
Angular speed = angular displacement ÷ time
Angular velocity = angular displacement ÷ time
The qualitative analysis system includes the development of a theoretical model as a basis for identifying faults judging their relative importance. In the qualitative analysis, the performance is evaluated subjectively based on direct, visual observation and this method is widely used, as it is less expensive. To conduct qualitative analysis, requires some prior knowledge of the sports or activity concerned, in particular if the motor skill to be analyze.
A qualitative analysis includes visual and photographic observations, which usually result in a description or a judgment of the good and the weak points of a given performance. Visual analysis has the obvious advantage of not requiring expensive equipment but suffers from limited accuracy and most effectively practiced by an expert coach with an experienced eye. Without instant replay, the teacher must depend upon the senses to be able to quickly see what took place. With the luxury of film or videotape and the time to view repeatedly a single performance, the chances for correctly diagnosing an error enhanced.
The filming process itself is very critical, and most ordinary game films are not of much use in analyzing of an individual, because of the probability of poor camera angle, background, or light. The time and expense needed to photograph individual performers and then to study the film for perhaps several hours is usually justified.
In quantitative analysis, technique evaluated objectively based on measurements taken from recording (e.g. film, videotape, force-time curves’) of the movement. At any level of quantitative analysis, there is a need for interaction between the coach and biomechanist if maximum performance is to be achieved. Quantitative evaluation of movement requires that a permanent record be collected for a number of trials so that each can be viewed and analysed. Recording of permanent data on movement may take a number of different forms, for example cinematography, electromyography (EMG), accelerometry, dynamometry or electrogoniometry. While some of these techniques may not be available for general use, a more informed reading of the scientific biomechanics literature can only occur if it understands how objective data are derived.
In quantitative analysis system, the performance is first recorded technique and then it is evaluated objectively. This method is used only for research purposes and is quite expensive. It involves the measurement and recoding of hard data about movement, gait analysis (walking, running Parkinson Ian gait), sequential analysis in kicking and throwing, postural characteristics in relation to performance, and it goes well beyond qualitative analysis because of its emphasis aim to identify the mechanical principals that effect motion and movement patterns, and employ the physical principles of the human body facilitate improvements in performance.
Image analysis techniques, including both movie photography and videography, provide the opportunity to capture complex movement sequences on film or videotape so that a detailed analysis can be performed. However, an understanding of sampling frequency relative to photography or videography is needed prior to discussing different image analysis techniques, as both are sampling processes that record information at discrete points in time during a continuous motion. The sampling rate needed for an accurate representation of movement must be at least twice the value of the highest frequency component contained in the movement, although many researchers believe sampling rates of 5 to 10 times the maximum frequency component are necessary. Excessive sampling either increases the cost when using high-speed photography or limits the choice of cameras when using high-speed videography. Under-sampling will cause vital movement characteristics to be missed, or distortions to arise. At the subjective level of analysis, film or video techniques may be use to record movement and allow general comments to be made on the observed characteristics. At an objective level it is not sufficient to just record and observe movement, as detailed measurements must be completed and inferences drawn with reference to the movement. Specific equipment and procedures must be use if accurate objective data are to be collected using image analysis techniques.
In high speed cinematography a motor-driven camera capable of providing frame rates up to approximately 500 Hz (c.s-1) and exposure times up to approximately 1/10 000 s is needed to accommodate movement and sport skills of differing speeds. In a golf drive for example, the ability to clearly record the impact of the ball and Club head would require an exposure time of approximately 1/3600 s and a frame rate of 400 Hz. The 400 Hz frame rate ensures that the moment of impact captured on film, while the exposure time guarantees that no blurring of the image occurs. For an analysis of jogging, an exposure time of 1/800 s would provide a clear image of the leg, while a frame rate of 100 Hz is sufficient to sample leg movement at the required frequency.
The collection of data from film for analytical purposes (digitizing) is the most time- consuming and tedious aspect of cinematographic research. A stop-action projector is needed to control film movement so that an operator can move an X-Y coordinate system until a pointer, pen, light or cross-hairs lie over the desired anatomical landmark to be digitized.
The co-ordinates of this point are then stored on a computer. In order for the anatomical landmark to be located, it must be clearly marked on the subject being filmed, so that an accurate identification of the segment end point or joint centre is possible These co-ordinate data are then smoothed prior to being mathematically manipulated in the calculation of kinematic and kinetic data. Information additional to the co-ordinates of the selected landmarks is required. A large sweep-hand clock may be included in the photographic field to establish the actual frame rate of the camera. Alternatively, internal camera lights which flash at a set rate may be used to mark the film and allow film speed calculation. Aspatial scale, such as a large metre rule, must also be filmed in the plane of action to convert film scale measures to real values.
This type of scientific analysis may be done on any of several levels, ranging from research that has immediate applicability to sports, scientist in the lab are aided by interesting and very technical measuring and recording devices, including high-speed cameras, motion analyzers, force platform and computers.
Two Dimensional Analysis:
This type of analysis commonly uses one camera and fewer markers on the subject than in more complex 3-D analysis. Although it has limitations, it was the first method used by sport researchers and biomechanists, and is still used today by many research labs that utilize motion analysis, and is easily adapted for student research.
Once film or video is recorded it must be analyzed. This usually entails digitizing points off of a film or video using a special machine, or even using tracing paper overlaid on a monitor. Video can be captured by a computer and relevant points digitized directly using image analysis programs such as NIH Image and Measurement in Motion. In the motion analysis activity included here, QuickTime movies are used to digitize points that make up an angle between the leg, ankle and foot. This angle lets one analyze the effect shoes have on pronation and supination.